*Afghanistan the landlocked country*

Map of Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a landlocked country, which means it is surrounded by other countries and has no access to oceans and because of that is at a disadvantage. Afghanistan is a landlocked country of planes and mountains. there are cold winters and hot summers. snowfall is concentrated in rhe central mountain and higher ranges of the northeast. most Afghanistan is influenced by weather fronts from the Mediterranean with low and erratic rainfall, typically in spring. the east of the country is near the margin of the monsoon system affecting the Indian sub continent. the conditions make subsistence a challenge and the livelihood of most people in Afghanistan is acutely vulnerable to climatic variation.

Living from land that dry and mountainous is very hard and has never been easy. but nearly 25 years of armed conflict, and 4 years of extreme drought have created a lot of human suffering and environmental devastation all over the country. warfare, lawlessness, and food insecurity have made refugees of some four million people. that's 1/4 of the total population!