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1. 1926-1950

In the wake of the Great Khost Rebellion of 1925, Afghanistan still suffers its conseqences while a treaty of neutrality and mutual nonaggression between it and the Soviet Union is signed. Meanwhile, Afghan's King, Amanullah Shah, tours the countries of Europe and Turkey, and makes note of all the modern and advanced secularization of the cities. Inspired, he introduced several reforms in order to modernize Afghanistan, some of which were actually put into place. Unfortunetly, it inadvertently alienated religious leaders and army members. This, in turn, made many people turn against Amanullah and in 1929, he was forced to abdicate when Kabul was invaded by forces led by Habībullāh Kalakānī. Ironicly, that same year he killed by Amanullah's cousin, prince Mohammed Nadir Khan. Declared King Nadir Shah, he began consolidating power, regenerating the country, and abandoning Amanullah's reforms in favour of a more gradual approach to modernization. According to the book, "Kite Runner," he was also a good friend of Amir's grandfather. Then, in 1933, he was assassinated in an act of revenge by a Kabul resident. Immediately, his son, Zahir Shah, is proclaimed king, thus beginning a period of peace in the country. During this time, trade with India is established and many roads and schools are built. Also, the United States formally recognize Afghanistan as a country. This time came to an abrupt end in 1939, when World War II begins. Though Afghanistan declares nuetrality, rumers say that it has ordered general mobilization and is exercising vigilance on the Soviet frontier. Despite this, Afghanistan advances steadily in education and industry and maintains intimate relations with the Allies due to their dependency on essential imports on India, the Soviet Union, and the United States. When World War II ends, Afghanistan gains an unbroken record of nuetrality for itself. Then in 1947, Afghanistan gains a new neighboring country, Pakistan, between it and India. Though Pakistan's unsettled relations with India interfere with Afghanistan's foreign trade, relations between it and Afghan are peaceful and formally correct. However, this would soon change with the formation of "Pashtunistan,"

Zahir Shah King of Afghanistan (1933-1973)

2. 1951-1965

As the new decade came, Afghanistan established closer relations with Egypt, Suadi Arabia, and Iran, while disputes dealing Pashtunistan combined with the assassination of Pakistan's prime minister, worsen relations between the two countries. King Zahir said that while they "have the most friendly feelings for Pakistan," they cannot "forget the cause for Pashtunistan." On the positive side, rich oil deposits are discovered on the inside of Afghan's borders and a bill nationalizing it is passed. As Afghanistan's economic life depends on motor transport, all oil prospecting becomes the country's most vital interest. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union decides to support Afghanistan against Pakistan by fanning their fear that Pakistan is growing stronger due to US asistance. Then, the Afghan-Pakistan relations take another wrong turn when the Paskistan government passes a bill merging western
western Pakistan into a single province. The Afghans respond by "invading" Pakistanian land. While this posed no threat, evidence suggusted that it was inspired by Kabul with the moral and material support of the Soviet Union and India. No more is mentioned of this until 1957, when Pakistan's Prime Minister visits Kabul and after speaking with Aghan's Prime Minister, Mohammad Daud, the two countries agree to restore full diplomatic relations. Shortly after, King Zahir tours the Soviet Union, and signs a Joint Communique stating that the countries would develop and promote the welfare of their countries. Then in 1958, Pakistan and Afghanistan sign an agreement guaranteeing reciprocal transit rights across each other's territory. While the decade draws to a close, emancipation of women comes about with the abolition of the veil and the chadri (the shroud-like head-to-toe gown). With a beginning of a new decade, Afghanistan brings about an old problem; The "completely negative attitude" of Pakistan toward the Afghan claim to Pashtunistan. Mohammad declares in a joint statement that "the application of the principle of self-determination" is the reasonable way to solve the problems of Pashtunistan. Unfortunetly, Pakistan, in response, closes Afghan consulates and trade missions in its territory. Afghanistan soon follows suit and as a result, throughout 1961, all trade has to go through either Soviet access routes or through Iran. Meanwhile, Afghanistan completes its first five-year plan, with some sectors described as over-fulfilled.

3. 1979
Skipping ahead, it is now 1979. Afghanistan has the become the subject of blame when US Ambassator, Adolph Dubs, is kidnapped and killed by Muslim extremists in Kabul. Despite lack of evidence, the U.S. condemns Afghanistan for attacking and cuts its aid to them. Over the course of the year, many rebellions and attempted munities by Muslims occur throughout Afghanistan. The climax comes right in December. After Afghan's king, Amin, is overthrown and killed by a coup backed by Soviet troops, they then start storming the country in an attempt to crush the Muslim rebels. The year ends with U.S. President Jimmy Carter stating that the Soviets actions within Afghanistan will have "severe political consequences." With that, Afghanistan would never be the same again.